OZONE THERAPY: OVERVIEW OF ITS POTENTIAL UTILITY IN MALE REPRODUCTION

Author information:

  • Zaher Merhi, Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York; New Hope Fertility Center, New York.
  • Ali Bazzi, St John Hospital and Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA
  • Rajean Moseley-LaRue, HOCATT USA LLC, Weatherford, TX, USA
  • Amber Ray Moseley, HOCATT USA LLC, Weatherford, TX, USA
  • André Hugo Smith, HOCATT USA LLC, Weatherford, TX, USA
  • John Zhang, New Hope Fertility Center, New York
  • Marco Ruggiero, Silver Spring Sagl, Arzo-Mendrisio, Switzerland

ABSTRACT

Ozone (O3), a highly water-soluble inorganic molecule, is a gas made of three atoms of oxygen (O) with a cyclic structure. Ozone can be produced by medical generators from pure oxygen after passing through a high voltage gradient. Ozone therapy (OT) can be given in medical practice via several routes that include transdermal, intramuscular, rectal, nasal, oral, vaginal, intravenous, intra-arterial, intraperitoneal, intra-pleural, topical, dental, intra-discal and by auto-hemotherapy. Because ozone, a highly reactive molecule, is a potent oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, it has strong bactericidal, antiviral, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal actions as well as therapeutic effects on the immune system. With its multifaceted route of administration, OThas been used to treat several pathologies that involve the immune system such as cancers, sepsis, abscesses and chronic wounds, skin problems (such as eczema and psoriasis), HIV infection, asthma, arthritis, urologic problems, osteomyelitis and many others. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate the role of OT in the male reproductive system. We performed a review of all available basic science, experimental animal studies and clinical peer-reviewed articles published in PubMed and Google Scholar until November 2018. The literature so far retrieved shows that most studies pertaining to the effect of OT on male reproduction were performed in animals. Results to date show that OT, via improving the immune system, significantly protects testicular function in the setting of testicular torsion/ischemia, protects against the effect of gonadotoxic agents and treats bacterial infections in the semen. This article calls for a need for at least pilot studies in humans using OT in its safest route of administration, which is probably the transdermal one. This would be significant especially considering that male factor infertility constitutes up to one third of couple infertility and it is very common that poor semen parameters are irreversible with medical or surgical treatment, such as varicocele repair or vasectomy reversal.Read More

LIVE BIRTH DERIVED FROM OOCYTE SPINDLE TRANSFER TO PREVENT MITOCHONDRIAL DISEASE

Author information:

  • John Zhang’Correspondence information about the author John Zhang , Hui Liu ,Shiyu Luo , Zhuo Lu , Alejandro Chávez-Badiola , Zitao Liu , Mingxue Yang, Zaher Merhi, Sherman J. Silber, Santiago Munné, Michalis Konstandinidis , Dagan Wells, Taosheng Huang’Correspondence information about the author Taosheng Huang

ABSTRACT

Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are maternally inherited and can cause fatal or debilitating mitochondrial disorders. The severity of clinical symptoms is often associated with the level of mtDNA mutation load or degree of heteroplasmy. Current clinical options to prevent transmission of mtDNA mutations to offspring are limited. Experimental spindle transfer in metaphase II oocytes, also called mitochondrial replacement therapy, is a novel technology for preventing mtDNA transmission from oocytes to pre-implantation embryos. Here, we report a female carrier of Leigh syndrome (mtDNA mutation 8993T > G), with a long history of multiple undiagnosed pregnancy losses and deaths of offspring as a result of this disease, who underwent IVF after reconstitution of her oocytes by spindle transfer into the cytoplasm of enucleated donor oocytes. A male euploid blastocyst wasobtained from the reconstituted oocytes, which had only a 5.7% mtDNA mutation load. Transfer of the embryo resulted in a pregnancy with delivery of a boy with neonatal mtDNA mutation load of 2.36–9.23% in his tested tissues. The boy is currently healthy at 7 months of age, although long-term follow-up of the child’s longitudinal development remains crucial.Read More

PREGNANCY DERIVED FROM HUMAN ZYGOTE PRONUCLEAR TRANSFER IN A PATIENT WHO HAD ARRESTED EMBRYOS AFTER IVF

Author information:

  • John Zhang, Guanglun Zhuang, Yong Zeng, Jamie Grifo, Carlo Acosta, Yimin Shu, Hui Liu

ABSTRACT

Nuclear transfer of an oocyte into the cytoplasm of another enucleated oocyte has shown that embryogenesis and implantation are influenced by cytoplasmic factors. We report a case of a 30-year-old nulligravida woman who had two failed IVF cycles characterized by all her embryos arresting at the two-cell stage and ultimately had pronuclear transfer using donor oocytes. After her third IVF cycle, eight out of 12 patient oocytes and 12 out of 15 donor oocytes were fertilized. The patient’s pronuclei were transferred subzonally into an enucleated donor cytoplasm resulting in seven reconstructed zygotes. Five viable reconstructed embryos were transferred into the patient’s uterus resulting in a triplet pregnancy with fetal heartbeats, normal karyotypes and nuclear genetic fingerprinting matching the mother’s genetic fingerprinting. Fetal mitochondrial DNA profiles were identical to those from donor cytoplasm with no detection of patient’s mitochondrial DNA. This report suggests that a potentially viable pregnancy with normal karyotype can be achieved through pronuclear transfer. Ongoing work to establish the efficacy and safety of pronuclear transfer will result in its use as an aid for human reproduction.Read More

REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF MATURE OOCYTES AFTER CONVENTIONAL OVARIAN HYPERSTIMULATION FOR IN VITRO FERTILIZATION

Author information:

  • John J. Zhang – Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, New Hope Fertility Center, New York, NY, USA
  • Mingxue Yang – Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, New Hope Fertility Center, New York, NY, USA
  • Zaher Merhi – Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA

ABSTRACT

To compare cumulative live birth rate according to the rate of use ofmetaphase II (MII) oocytes in conventional ovarian stimulation protocols for in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Methods: In a cohort study, patients aged 18–38 years undergoing their first IVF treatment at one US center were enrolled between February 1, 2009, and August 31, 2013. Ovarian response was categorized by the yield of MII oocytes (low: 1–2; intermediate: 3–6; high: ≥7). The main outcome measure was cumulative live birth rate over a 6-month period. Results: Among 250 participants, 3240 oocytes (mean ± SEM 12.96 ± 0.50) were retrieved and there were 152 (60.8%) live births. Overall, 172 (68.8%) participants had a high oocyte yield, 61 (24.4%) an intermediate yield, and 17 (6.8%) a low yield. The cumulative live birth rate was 58.8% (10/17) in the low-yield group, 55.7% (34/61) in the intermediate-yield group, and 62.8% (108/172) in the high-yield group (P = 0.35). Conclusion: In conventional ovarian stimulation, live birth rate is not affected by the ovarian response. Whether oocytes produced from a low ovarian response are biologically more effective than oocytes obtained from a high ovarian response remains to be determined.Read More

METABOLISM – CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL

Author information:

  • Magdalena Pertynska-Marczewska, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis, John Zhang, Zaher Merhi,

ABSTRACT

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a heterogeneous syndrome of reproductive and metabolic alterations, is associated with increased long-term risk of cardiovascular complications. This phenomenon has been linked to an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are pro-inflammatory molecules that trigger a state of intracellular oxidative stress and inflammation after binding to their cell membrane receptors RAGE. The activation of the AGE–RAGE axis has been well known to play a role in atherosclerosis in both men and women. Women with PCOS have systemic chronic inflammatory condition even at the ovarian level as represented by elevated levels of serum/ovarian AGEs and increased expression of the pro-inflammatory RAGE in ovarian tissue. Data also showed the presence of sRAGE in the follicular fluid and its potential protective role against the harmful effect of AGEs on ovarian function. Thus, whether AGE–RAGE axis constitutes a link between metabolic and endothelial dysfunction in women with PCOS is addressed in this review. Additionally, we discuss the role of hormonal changes observed in PCOS and how they are linked with the AGE–RAGE axis in order to better understand the nature of this complex syndrome whose consequences extend well beyond reproduction.Read More

REVISITING GERMINAL VESICLE TRANSFER AS A TREATMENT FOR ANEUPLOIDY IN INFERTILE WOMEN WITH DIMINISHED OVARIAN RESERVE.

Author information:

  • Department of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, New Hope Fertility Center , New York, NY , USA.

ABSTRACT

Both the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments are essential for the acquisition of meiotic competence. This study assessed the role of the cytoplasm in meiosis resumption in meiotically arrested oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. Mouse oocytes at GV stage were meiotically arrested with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). GV transfer was performed between IBMX-treated and non-treated (control) mouse oocytes, and between control mouse and human GV oocytes. Extrusion of first polar body (PB) was examined as an indication of nuclear maturation. Meiotic spindle assembly and chromosome alignment were examined by immunostaining. Results indicated that oocytes arrested with IBMX for 24 and 48 h exhibited reduced ability for meiotic maturation and for extruding the first PB when compared with controls (P < 0.01). IBMX-treated oocytes reconstituted with cytoplasm, but not GV, of control oocytes restored the assembly of meiotic spindle and meiotic maturation. Mouse oocytes reconstituted with GV of human oocytes underwent meiosis similar to that observed in mice, but not humans. Additionally, human oocytes reconstituted by mouse GV underwent meiosis similar to that observed in humans, but not mice. These findings suggest that cytoplasm replacement by GV transfer could represent a potential therapeutic option for women who do not produce mature oocytes during IVF.Read More

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